Insulin is a protein-peptide hormone drug that is used as a specific treatment for diabetes mellitus. Insulin is able to actively influence the carbohydrate metabolism. It helps to lower the glucose content in the blood and its assimilation by tissues. Also Insulin promotes the synthesis of glycogen and prevents the conversion of amino acids and fats into carbohydrates.
Insulin is a hormone or a high molecular weight protein that is produced in the pancreas of all mammals. It is a specific regulator of carbohydrate volume. The action of insulin is manifested in the activation of hexokinase, which promotes the utilization of glucose and stimulates the synthesis of glycogen from glucose. For the active unit of insulin take the sugar reduction activity of 0.045 mg of crystalline insulin, and in one milliliter of insulin solution contains 40 units.
The therapeutic effect of insulin in diabetes mellitus is associated with the elimination of violations in the interstitial metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, which usually occur in this disease. The effect of insulin manifests itself in improving the condition of patients, a marked decrease in blood sugar, the elimination or a significant decrease in acetonuria and glucosuria, as well as in reducing the manifestations of most of the disorders that usually accompany diabetes mellitus, for example, polyneuritis, polyarthritis, furunculosis.
Diseases that occur with hypoglycemia, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemolytic jaundice, pancreatitis, nephritis, amyloidosis of the kidneys, urolithiasis, stomach and duodenal ulcer, decompensated heart diseases. Great caution is required in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus, suffering from coronary insufficiency and cerebral circulation disorders. Caution is necessary when using insulin in patients with thyroid disease, Addison’s disease, renal insufficiency. Insulin therapy of pregnant women should be carried out under careful control. During the first trimester of pregnancy, the need for insulin is usually somewhat reduced and increases in the II and III trimesters.
Alfa1-adrenoblockers and beta-adrenostimulators, tetracyclines, salicylates increase the secretion of endogenous insulin. Thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, alcohol can lead to hypoglycemia.
With subcutaneous administration of insulin preparations, it is possible to develop lipodystrophy (reducing the amount of adipose tissue in the subcutaneous tissue) at the injection site.
Modern highly purified insulin preparations relatively rarely cause allergy phenomena, but such cases are not ruled out. The development of an acute allergic reaction requires immediate desensitizing (preventive or inhibitory allergic reaction) therapy and drug replacement.